Ko kun san tsirrai na ji da gani da shakar wari ko kamshi?

A cewar Jack C. Schultz, tsirrai dabbobi ne masu lakaki

Wannan ba gurguwar fahimta ba ce game da kimiyyar halittu. Schultz farfesa ne a bangaren kimiyyyar nazarin tsirrai a Jami’ar Missouri da ke Kolombiya, kuma ya shafe shekara 40 yana gudanar da bincike kan mu’amalar tsirrai da kwari. Kwararre ne a fanninsa.

Sabanin haka ma, ya bijiro da muhimmin al’amari wajen fahimtar danginmu masu ganye, wadanda yake ganin an yi watsi da su tamkar wani yanki na kayan alatun gida. Tsirrai na fafatawa saboda wurin zama da neman abinci, su farmaki masu kai musu hari da kuma yi wa abincinsu tarko. Suna da rai kamar kowace dabba, kuma tamkar dabbobi suna nuna dabi’arsu.

“Don ganin hakan, kana bukatar yin majigin tsirrai da ke girma, ta yadda za su nuna dabi’u irin na dabbobi,” kamar yadda a cikin zumudi Olivier Hamant, wani masanin kimiyyar nazarin tsirrai daga Jami’ar Lyon, a Faransa ya furta. A gaskiya, kyamara mai daukar hoton wucin gadi za ta bayyanar da abin da ya boyu a duniyar tsirrai da dabi’u masu kayatarwa, ta yadda duk wanda ya taba ganin jerin majigin nan na jerin “woodland” wanda David Atenborough ya gabarar da shirin tartibin rayuwa (Life series) zai fahimta.

Wadannan tsirrai na yin motsi ne da manufa, ma’ana suna sane da abin da ke wakana a kewaye da su. “Don mayar da martani yadda ya dace, tsirran na bukatar managarcin tsari da na’urori da za su yi juyi daidai da mabambantan yanayi,” inji Schultz.

Ko me ake nufi da sansanowar tsirrai? Ta yiwu idan ka yarda da batun Daniel Chamovitz na Jami’ar Tel Aviv da ke Isra’ila, babu bambanci da yanayinmu kamar yadda kake sa rai.

Shin me wadannan furanni suka “sani”?

Lokacin da chamovitz ya kuduri yin rubutunsa a shekara 2012, wato littafinsa mai taken Me tsiro ya sani – a ciki ya bibiyi yadda tsirrai ke samun fahimtar duniya ta hanyar kai kawo a wjaen nazari har zuwa yau a tsarin binciken kimiyya ya yi hakan ne cikin damuwa.

“Na yi matukar zakuwar son jin irin martanin da za a samu,” inji shi.

Kwarewar kade-kaden Beethoven ba shi da wani tasiri ga tsiro, amma idan tsutsa mai jin yunwa ta kawo hari, a nan za a ga yadda tsiro zai fafata da ita.

Damuwarsa ba za a ce ba ta da tushe ba. Al’amuran da ya siffanta na tsirrai game da ganinsu da sansanarsu da tunaninsu da ma sanin sauti a Sirrin rayuwar tsirrai (The Scret Life of Plants), wani mashahurin littafi da aka wallafa a shekarar 1973 wanda ya dauki hankalin al’ummar zamanin game da karfin fure, amma sai aka tattara shi a ‘yar karamar hanya wajen kafa hujoji na gaskiya.

Littafin farko ya fito da kwararan bayanai, wadanda ta yiwu, shi ne ke kunshe da bayanin da ka ki amincewa da shi na cewa tsirrai na mayar da martani yadda ya dace ga karar kidan zamani.

Amma nazarin irin fahimtar tsirrai ya faro tun daga shekarun 1970, kuma a shekarun baya-bayan nan an samu ci gaba wajen bincike kan yadda tsiro ke sansano abubuwa. Abin da ya zaburar da wannan aikin ba wai don a a nuna cewa “tsirrai ma suna yin tunani ba,” sai dai don neman dalilin da ya sanya, da yadda aka yi tsiro ke sansano abin da ke kewaye da shi (a mahallinsa).

Heidi Appel da Rex Cocroft, wasu abokan aikin Schultz a Missouri sun shiga jerin masu binciken, wadanda ke bin kadin gaskiyar lamari kan yadda tsiro ke saurare.

Gudunmowar kawai tana da manufar bijiro da dalilin da zai tabbatar da tasirin sauti a kan tsirrai,” inji Appel. Salon kidan Beethoven tasirinsa kadan ne a kan tsiro, amma farmakin tsutsa mai jin yunwa wani sabon labari ne.

Muna da hanci da kunnuwa, amma mene ne tsiro ke da shi?

Muhimmancin abubuwan da ke kewaye a muhalli su ne mabudi. Consuelo De Moraes na Cibiyar Tarayyar Swiss ta Kere-kere da ke Zurich, tare da hadin gwiwar abokansa, ya nuna cewa iya sauraren karar kwaron da ke tahowa, wasu tsirran za su iya sansano su ko su ji kamshi ko warin hargowar alamunsu daga tsirran da ke makwaftaka da su don mayar da martani gare su.

Babbar barazanar da aka yi nuni da ita a shekarar 2006 ta nuna yadda tsiro mai cin dan uwansa, nau’in “dodder vine” ya kassara wanda yake zaune a kansa.

Abin fahimta a nan, babu bambanci mai yawa a tsakaninmu da wadannan tsirran. Su kan sansano kamshi ko wari ko su saurari wani abu, sannan su mayar da martanin da ya dace, tamkar yadda muke yi.

Sai dai tabbas, akwai wani muhimmin bambanci. “Ba mu san hakikanin yadda ake da kamaceceniya a tsarin jin wari ko kamshi a tsirrai da dabbobi ba, saboda ba mu fahimci al’amura da dama game da tsarin yadda yake a tsirrai ba, inji De Moraes.

Muna da hanci da kunnuwa, amma me tsiro ke da shi?

Rashin sansannun cibiyoyin tattara bayanai kan sansane-sansane ya haifar da wuyar fahimta yadda tsiro ke sansane-sansane (a kafofin jikinsa).

A nasu bangaren kuwa, Appel da Cocroft suna sa ran bin kadin yadda sassan jikin tsirrai ke mayar da martani ga sauti.

Masu bincike sun fara maimaita tsare-tsaren da ke nuni da yadda aka yi matukar shan bamban da dabbobi. Wadannan kananan illoli da karar sauti ke haifarwa na iya jefa abu cikin tafiyar lantarki ko motsin sinadarai.

Ta yiwu wadanda za a yi gwajin a kansu ne ke tarairayar tsarin sarrafa abinci mai gina jiki a daukacin kwayoyin halittar tsiro. A wajen tsiro kuwa, yana yiwuwa babu bukatar wani abu mai tsauri kamar kunne.

Wani aikin da muke iya yi daidai da tsirrai shi ne motsin daidaiku: “kafa ta shida” da ke ba mu damar (wasu daga cikin) tabawa da tsalle-tsalle, tare da fahimtar inda wasu sassan jimkinmu suke walwala.

Saboda wannan ita ce kafa da ke da muhimmanci tattare da kafar jikin dabbobi, amma an fi dogaro sakamakon sakar da ke tsakanin tsare-tsaren tarairayar nama da kwakwalwa, wanda kwatantawa da tsirrai ke da matukar kyau.

“Wannan dabarar mamaya iri guda ce,” a cewar Hamanta, wanda ya yi hadin gwiwa wajen bibiyar binciken daidaikun sassan jiki da suka rubuta a shekarar 2016. “Zuwa yanzu dai, abin da muka fahimta shi ne game da tsirrai ya fi yawa tsarin kwayar halitta, wajen mayar da martani da motsin tankwarawa.”

Gaskiyar lamari, wani bincike da aka wallafa a shekarar 2015 ya yi nuni da kamanceceniyar mai yawa, wadda ta bayyana wani bangaren naman mutum da aikinsa ya yi daidai da nan daidaikun motsin na jikin tsiro. “Wannan hujja ce marar karfi,” inji Hamant, “amma akwai wasu hujjojin da ke nuni da cewa silin tsiron na ‘actin’ na aiki kamar yadda nama ke yi.”

Wadannan sakamakon binciken ba kebabbu ba ne ba. Domin an ci gaba da bincike kan sansane-sansanen tsiro, masu bincike sun gano tsare-tsaren da ke maimaita kansu, wadanda suka nuna sun yi hannun riga da na dabbobi.

A yau akwai masu binciken tsiro, kan al’amarin al’adun da ba su shafi tsiron ba, wadanda suka hada da tunani da koyo da warware matsala.

A shekarar 2014. Wani gungun masana daga Jami’ar Lausame ta Switzerland da farmakin da tsutsa ta kai wa wani tsiron nau’in kabeji (Arabidopsis) ya ingizo da hargowar lantarki. Kasancewar alamun hargowar lantarki a tsirrai ba sabon abu ba ne, a cewar masanin sassan jiki John burdon-Sanderson da ya nuna cewa tsarin aiki ne na tsiron Venus flytrap tun a shekarun 1874, sai dai abin mamakin shi ne rawar da sinadari ke takawa, wadda ake kira da mai karbar sinadarin glutamate.

Sinadarin Glutamate ya fi kowanen muhimmanci wajen aikewa da sakonni a masarrafar kadarkon jijiyoyi, kuma yana taka irin wannan muhimmiyar rawar a jikin tsirrai, sai dai wani abin muhimmin lura tsirrai ba su da kadarkon jijiyoyin aikewa da sakonni.

“Fannin kimiyyar nazarin kwayoyin halitta da juyin kwayoyin halittu sun nusar da mu cewa tsirrai da dabbobi suna da kwayoyin halitta da jerin su ke da iyaka ‘jigon gina jiki’ masu kama da juna,” a cewar Fatima Cvrčková, wata mai bincike a Jami’ar Charles da ke Prague a jamhuriyar Czech. Sakonnin lantarki suna zarya ne ta hanyoyi biyu.

“Bunkasar halittu ta haifar da dimbin tsare-tsaren sadarwa, kuma duk da cewa za ka iya kai wa ga haka ta hanyoyi mabambanta, karshen al’amarin dai irin guda ne,” inji Chamovitz.

Fahimtar cewa irin wadannan kamance-kamancen na nan, kuma tsirrai na da karfin sansano abin da ke kewaye da su sabanin yadda ake ganinsu, wannan ya haifar da kyakkyawan ikirarin cewa “tsiro na da basira,” har ta kai ga an fito da sabon fannin nazari. Karkarwar lantarki da ke bijirowa daga tsirrai na daya daga cikin jiga-jigan al’amuran da suka haifar “kimiyyar sakonnin tsirrai – plant neurobiology” (mahangar da ake amfani da ita duk da cewa tsirrai ba su da jijiyoyin aikewa da sakonni), sannan a yau akwai masu bincike kan tsirrai, wadanda ke gudanar da binciken kan al’adun da ba su shafi tsirrai ba, wato abubuwwan da suka shafi tunani da koyo da warware matsala.

Duk da rashin idanu, tsirrai irin su latas din Arabidopsis na da nau’uka 11 na makarbiyar haske, wadda ake kwatantawa da namu nau’uka hudu.

Irin wannan tsarin tunanin shi ya haifar wa ‘yan majalisa a kasar Switzerland suka bullo da wasu ka’idojin kiyaye “martabar tsirrai” – ba tare da la’akari da abin zai haifar ba.

Duk da cewa akwai dimbin wadanda ke ganin cewa kalamai irin su “basirar tsirrai” da “kimiyyar sakonnin tsirrai” wata sarkakiyar Magana ce, sun sha dimbin suka ba ma kawai daga Chamovitz ba. “Ko ina tunanin cewa tsirrai masu wayau ne? Ina jin cewa dai tsirrai na da cukurkudaddun al’amura,” inji shi. Cukurkudewar lamura, a cewarsa, ba za a rudu da cewa tana nufin kaifin basira ba.

Duk da cewa yana da alfanu a kwatanta tsirrai da wasu siffofin mutane (irin su soyayya da haihuwa da kyawu da kiyayya da hadama da hikima da sauransu) wajen isar da dabarun sadarwa, suna da iyaka. Sai dai hadarin da ke tattare shi ne kallon tsirrai a matsayin makaskantan rukunin dabbobi, wannan ya kauce wa manufa gaba daya.

“Mu masana kimiyya da ke nazarin tsirrai muna farin cikin yin magana game da kamanceceniya da bambance-bambancen da ke tsakanin rayuwar tsirrai da ta dabbobi a lokacin gabatar da sakamakon bincike ga daukacin al’umma,” inji Cvrckova. Sai dai, tana jin cewa dogaro da sarkakiyar kamanceceniya wajen siffanta tsirrai na tattare da matsaloli.

“Kana son kauce wa irin wannan (sarkakiyar), sai dai in manufar ta dogara ne kacokam (kan abu mara amfani) a takaddamar jin zafin ciwon karas idan ka gutsire shi.”

Tsirrai sun kai makura wajen yin hakikanin abin da suke son yi. Ta yiwu ba su da tsarin jijiyon aikewa da sakonni, wato kwakwalwa da sauran sassan da muke dangantawa da cukurkudewar al’amura, amma sun yi fice a wasu sassan.

Mun fi kusa (a kamanceceniya) da tsirrai fiye da yadda muke tsammani.

Misali, duk da rashin idanu, tsirrai irin su latas din Arabidopsis suna da makarbiyar haske nau’ika 11, in an kwatanta da namu ‘yan kadan guda hudu. Wannan na nufin cewa, tsarin ganinsu na da rudarwa fiye da namu. Tsirrai na da fifikon bukatu, kuma kafofin sansano harkokinsu na nuni da haka. Tamkar dai yadda Chamovitz ya yi nuni a cikin littafinsa cewa: “haske a wajen tsiro ya fi gaban walkatawa; haske abinci ne.”

Saboda haka a lokacin da tsirrai ke fuskantar kalubale irin na dabbobi, bukatun kafofin sansano abubuwa na tasirantuwa ne da irin al’amuran da suka bambance su. “Kafuwar tushen itace – na nufi da gaskiyar lamarin rashin motsinsu shi ke nuna cewa suna sane da abin da ke kewaye da su a muhallinsu fiye da yadda kake yi ko nake yi,” inji Chamovitz.

Don samun cikakkiyar fahimtar yadda tsirrai ke sanin duniya, yana da matukar muhimmmanci ga masana kimiyya da daukacin al’umma su fahimci hakikanin yadda suke.

“Hadarin da ke tattare da mutane game da tsirrai, shi ne idan muka ci gaba da kwatanta tsirrai da dabbobi za mu iya yin watsi da alfanun tsirran,” inji Hamant.

“Ina son ganin an fahimci cewa tsirrai na da ban mamaki da ban sha’awa, tare da karfin jure wa rayuwa,” kamar yadda Cvrckova ta tabbatar, “kuma ta yi kasa a matsayin abincin mutane da makamashinsu.” Irin wadannan al’amura za su amfanar da kowa. Nazarin kwayoyin halitta da gamayyar lantarki da kimiyyar ayyukan sassan jiki da gano yadda kwayoyin halitta ke samun sauye-sauye kadan ne daga cikin misalan wadannan fannoni da aka fara su daga binciken tsirrai, kuma sun bude sabon babi wajen bunkasar kimiyyar nazarin halittu gaba daya.

Sabanin haka ma, ganewar da aka yi cewa muna da wasu abubuwa iri guda da tsirrai ta iya zama wata damar amincewa da cewa mu ma tamkar tsirrai muke, muna bukatar yin tunani, tamkar yadda tsirrai suke kamanceceniya da dabbobi fiye da yadda muke tsammani.

“Ta yiwu al’amuranmu sun fi cukurkudewa fiye da yadda muke tsammani, “kamar yadda Chamovitz ya karkare. A ganinsa, kamanceceniyar za ta ankarar da mu game da cukurkudaddun al’amura masu ban mamaki na tsirrai, da kuma jiga-jigan al’amuran da suka yi wa daukacin halittun da suke rayuwa a duniya mahada.

“Daga nan za mu fara sha’awar jin cewa halittu (tsirrai da dabbbobi) na da mahada kamar yadda kimiyyar nazarin halittu ta tabbatar.”

Shiga cikin jerin mutum fiye da miliyan shida masoyan shirin Doron kasa na BBC, ta hanyar taba maballin kauna a shafinmu na facebook, ko ka biyo mu a shafinmu na Twitter da Instagram.

Source: BBC Hausa