Shin kun san dalilin da ya sa mutane ke sanya tufafi?

Stephen Gough na sha'awar zaman zindir: lamarin ya kai makura, har ta kai ga ya rasa 'yancinsa.

Ta yiwu mutane sun maye makwafin zayyanar jiki da tufafi

Ya shafe shekara 10 a gidan kurkuku saboda fita tsirara a bainar jama’a baya ga cewa an sha tsare shi.

Gough, wanda ke da lakabin “mai yawo tsirara,” ya fi son tafiya a tumbur lokacin yanayin zafi.

Ba shi da wani hadari ko cutarwa ga al’umma, amma tafiyar da yake zigidir daga John o’Groats zuwa Lands End a Birtaniya cikin shekara ta 2003, ya haifar da rudani a kasar.

Wani rukuni na al’ummar mafarauta har yanzu sun fi sha’awar zama zigidir haihuwar uwarsu.

Lokacin da ya yi yunkurin yin balaguro sai aka yi hanzari kama shi aka tsare.

A kurkuku an sha kebe shi saboda ya ki yadda ya sanya tufafi.

Kuma har yanzu babu wanda zai iya yin jayayya kan cewa ba haka aka haife mu ba, kamar Gough, ba tare da sutura ba.

Bambancin kawai shi ne mafi yawancin mu mu kan rufe jiki ne a cikin jama’a.

Akwai kyawawan dalilan yin hakan: a lokacin sanyin hunturu za mu kame mu mutu in ba muvrufe jiki ba, kuma a lokacin zafi tufafi za su iya ba mu kariya daga rana.

Sai dai wasu al’ummomin mafarauta har yanzu sun fi son zama haihuwar uwarsu, al’amarin da ke nuni da cewa ba dole sai mun sanya tufafi za mu rayu ba.

Don haka zama zindir daidai ne kenan. Abin tambaya kawai yaushe muka damfaru da son sanya sutura, kuma mene ne dalili?

Alamun burbushin tufafi bai hau kan burbushin duwatsu ba, saboda haka babu hujja kai tsaye da za ta tabbatar da lokacin da mutanen farko – “hominin” – kakannin mutane suka daina yawo tsirar, har suka fara lullube jikinsu da gashi da fatun dabbobi.

Sabanin haka ma, masana kimiyyar nazarin dadaddun al’amura ba sa bin hanyoyin ta kai tsaye wajen gano asalin tufafi.

Wani bincike da aka gudanar a kan kudin cizo a shekara ta 2011 ya yi nuni da cewa kimanin shekara dubu 170 aka fara.

Masu bincike sun gano cewa kwrkwata da kudin cizon da ke makalewa a tufafinmu sun rabu ne a daidai wannan lokaci.

Manufa dai ita ce a daidai lokacin da muka fara sanya sutura, sai kudin cizo ya fara tarewa a jikinsu, ya kuma zama wani nau’in halittu daban.

Kariya kadai ba za ta zama dalilinmu na sanya tufafi kadai ba.

A wannan zamani na cikakkun mutane, wadanda ake yi wa lakabi da ”Homo sapiens”, tuni muke tafiya kan kasa a Afirka.

Ba su da dimbin gashin da ya baibaye jiki, al’amarin da ya taimaka wa mutanen da suka rika samun dumin jiki da daddare, ya kuma ba su kariya daga zafin rana.

Akwai yiwuwar mun fara sanya tufafi ne don maye makwafin gashi da muka rasa, a cewar Ian Giligan na Jami’ar Sydney da ke Austiraliya.

Mafi yawan al’ummomin mafarautan wannan zamani, irin mutanen Nuer da ke Kudancin Sudan, suna sanya guntayen tufafi.

Wannan na nufin kariya ba za ta zamo dalilin da ya sanya muka fara sanya tufafi ba.

Dalilin kawai da za a yarda da shi, shi ne mutane sun fara jin “kunya” don haka suka fara son rufe jikinsu, amma yana da wahala a samu hujja takamaimai.

Bayanan tarihi sun yi nuni da cewa al’ummomin mafarauta, irin na Fuegians daga Kudancin Amurka, sun sanya saukaka tufafi na wancan lokacin, kuma sun yi yawo tsirara.

Ta yiwu mutanen farko sun rika lullube jikinsu ne kawai a lokacin sanyi.

Rukunin mutanen farko a nahiyar Turai (Neanderthals) suna sanya tufafi ne a matsayin kariya ne kawai lokacin sanyi

A wajen Afirka kuwa, al’amari ne mai sauki a san cewa tufafi na da muhimmmanci don kariya daga sanyi.

Wani nau’in rukunin mutane, na Turawan asali, sun yi tafiya a kasa lokacin tsananin sanyi, don haka akwai tabbacin cewa bukatar lullube jiki ta bijiro.

”Neandertahals”, mutanen farko da suka shude a Turai kafin mutanen zamani su halarto.

Daukacinmu mun fito daga zuiri’ar kakanni guda ne, watakila su ne rukunin farko na mutanen Afirka da Turai da yammacin Asiya, wato ”Homo heidelbergensis”.

Daga nan za a iya cewa, idan ‘Neanderthals’ sun sanya tufafi, to an kirkiro tufafi ne ba sau daya ba, kuma mutanen farko a nahiyar Turai, wato Neanderthals ne suka fara kirkiro su kafin mu.

Mutanen Turai na farko ‘Neanderthals’ ba su bukaci yin tufafi tsukakku don lullube jikinsu ba.

A wani bincike da aka wallafa a shekara ta 2012, Wales ya kiyasta cewa mutanen Turai na farko tabbas sun lullube kashi 70 zuwa 80 cikin 100 na jikinsu a watannin hunturu, don samun nasarar rayuwa a yanayin da muka fahimci sun zauna.

A wajen bayyanar da al’amarin, Wales ya kwatanta tufafin al’ummomin mafarautan wannan zamani a muhalli daban-daban, sannan ya yi nazari kan irin yanayin da suka zauna kamar yadda tarihi ya bayyana.

Mutanen zamani suna bukatar lullube jikinsu sosai, kimanin kashi 90 cikin 100, kamar yadda Wales ya yi nazari.

Wannan na nufin, a cewarsa, mutanen da suka shude a Turai ba su sanya tsukakkun tufafin da suke rufe musu jiki ruf ba.

Muna da karancin sani game da irin tufafin da suka sanya.

Ta yiwu mutanen da suka shude a Turai sun yi lage da walki na gashi, kamar yadda yake kunshe a wani bincike da aka wallafa a shekarar 2016.

Masu binciken sun bijiro da irin walkin lagen fatar dabba da wata macen asalin mutanen da suka shude a Turai ta yafa.

Sannan mutumin zamani ya yi cukurkudaddun kayan sawa masu wuyar sha’ani, ta yiwu saboda dinke dumbin kyallaye.

Jagoran wadanda suka rubuta sakamakon binciken, Mark Collard, na Jami’ar Simon Fraser da ke Burnaby a kasar Canada, ya fahimci cewa mutanen zamani sun damfaru da bukatar yin farautar dabbobin da za su taimaka musu wajen dinka tufafin gashi masu kauri da taushi.

Babban misali shi ne wata gajeriyar dabba mai gashi da ke cin nama (wolverine).

Domin za ta bayar da kyakkyawar damar fitar da wuya daga gefan tufafi.

Sabanin a bullo da dabarun iya zama a haka, gara ka kikirki managar kayan sawa.

Collard ya gano cewa, har a yau, gajeriyar dabba mai gashi ta wolverine ita gungun mutanen Arewacin Canada da Greenland da Alaska ke farauta.

“An yi ta farautar irin wadannan, saboda al’amari na yanayin gashi, gashinsu dai sanyi bay a daskarar da shi kamar sauran nau’ukan,” inji shi.

“Sun fi nagarta fiye da tufafin kariyar sanyi da sojoji ke sanyawa.”

A wajen Wales, wadannan sakamakon binciken sun tabbatar da cewa, mutanen zamani sun sha bam-ban da mutanen da suka shude a Turai (Neandertahls).

“Fasahar kimiyyar kere-kere ta taimaka wa mutane, ta yadda za su iya zama a wani sabon muhalli,” inji shi.

“Don haka sabanin a bullo da dabarun iya zama a can, sai kawai ka samar da managartan tufafi.”

Duk da cewa, mutanen da suka shude a Turai (Neanderthals) suna da gajarta da girman jiki sun samu kyakkyawan daidaito ta wajen zama a yanayin Turai mai tsananin sanyi fiye da mutanen zamani.

Sun riga mu zuwa Turai, yayin da mutanen zamani suka sarayar da dimbin shekarunsu a yankin Afirka mai yanayin zafi.

Abin takaici ne, a gaskiyar lamari cewa mutanen Turai da suka shude (Neanderthals) sabon su da yanayin sanyi ya taimaka wajen shudewarsu.

Idan wannan ya haifar da sabanin fahimta, to dai haka al’amarin yake.

Mutanen zamani sun fi sirantar jiki, al’amarin da ke bayar da damar sanyi ya ratsa su.

Sakamakon haka kakanninmu an tursasa su wajen kaimin bunkasa fasahar kimiyyar kere-kere.

“Mun kirkiro da managartan tufafi ya maye makwafin abin da muka rasa, al’amarin da ke ba mu kariya a yanayin tsananin sanyin shekaru dubu 30 da suka wuce,” inji Gilligan.

Ta yiwu mun koyi wani al’amari ko darussa biyu daga mutanen Turai da suka shude (Neanderthals).

Alamun hujjojin dadaddun al’amura masu dimbin shekaru na nuni da cewa mutanen zamani suna managarciyar fasahar kimiyyar kere-kere wajen yin tufafi.

Tuni muka kirkiro kayan aikin yanke-yanke, irin masu kaifi da allurai.

Wadannan sun taimaka mana wajen yanka fatar dabba a fasalin mikakke da daidai wa daida, wadanda za a hada su wuri guda.

A kwatanceceniya, mutanen Turai da suka shude (Neandertahal) sun mallaki abin goge-goge da durjewa ne kawai.

A shekarar 2007, Gilligan ya bayyana cewa, wannan ya taimaka wajen shudewarsu, inda suka karke da tufafi marasa nagarta a lokacin matsanancin sanyi, zamanin karshe na bagiren kankara.

“A lokacin da suka fara fafutika, wannan shi ne dalilin da ya sanya suka gushe, ba su da fasahar kimiyyar kere-kere da za ta samar da hadaddun tufafin mutanen zamani, wadanda tuni aka samar da su tun farko a Afirka,” a cewar Gilligan.

Duk da cewa mutanen zamani suna da dimbin ingantattun kayan aiki da tufafi, mutanen Turai da suka shude miyagu ne dukum yadda aka nuna a da, kuma babu wani dalili na bai daya da zai tabatar da cewa masu nagarta da wuyar sha’ani ne fiye da mu.

Kawai dai ba sa bukatar lullube jikinsu gaba daya, sai kuma daga baya suka bukaci yin hakan, sannan fasahar kere-kerensu mara nagarta ta kassara su.

A gaskiya, idan aka yi batun sarrafa fatun dabba, za mu koyi wani abu ko darussa biyu daga mutanen Turai da suka gushe (Neanderthals).

A shekarar 2003, wani gungun masana karkashin jagorancin Marie Soressi ta Jami’ar Leiden da ke Netherland, sun gano cewa mutanen Turai da suka shude su ne suka fara amfani da kayan aikin da suka kera daga kashi, sabanin dutse.

Sun yi wannan aiki ne kimanin shekaru 40 zuwa 60 da suka wuce.

Wadannan “kayan aikin kashi” an yi su ne daga hakarkarin gada.

Ana amfani da su wajen aikin sarrafa fata don gyarata ta yi taushi, inda ake da tabbacin yin tufafi.

Bayan da mutanen Turai na farko suka shude, mutanen zamani da suka fara bijirowa (Homo sapiens) an samu kayan aiki na kashi a wuraren da suka rayu.

“Irin wadannan kayan aiki da aka kera daga kashi an fi samunsu a zamanin kayan aikin da aka kera da duwatsu, don haka ake samun burbushinsu a wuraren da mutanen farko na zamani suka fara bayyana bayan shudewar mutanen Turai na farko (Neandewrthal),” a cewar Soressi.

“A ganina wannan na nuni da hujjar da ke tabbatar da wani abu da aka gada daga mutanen Turai na farko da suka gushe zuwa ga mutanen zamani.

Fahimtar dabarun mutanen Turai na farko wajen tarairayar sanyi na da matukar amfani ga mutanen zamani, wadanda za su iya hada kayan aiki na kashi da dimbin kayayyakinsu su samar da managartan tufafi.

Idan wannan ya zama gaskiya, to an bijiro da batun cewa mutanen Turai na farko ba su kwaikwayi mutanen zamani ba, a wajen samar da ingantattun kayan fasahar kimiyyar kere-kere.

Ta yiwu mutanen zamani ne suka samu kayan aikin mutanen Turai na farko da suka shude, wadanda aka yi da kashi, ba tare da sun taba haduwa da su ba.

Akwai tabbacin cewa mutane sun saba yi wa kansu ado da kawa tun kafin samuwar tufafi.

A da can da dadewa, ta yiwu wajen shekaru dubu 30, tufafin zamanin amfani da kayan aiki na duwatsu ke da inganci har zuwa yanzu.

A kogon Dzuduzana da ke Geogia, masu bincike sun gano zangaryar kwayar hatsi mai launi a wuraren da mutanen suka rayu.

Ta yiwu an yi amfani da wadannan wajen yin tufafi masu launuka.

Gilligan ya yi nuni da cewa, ta yiwu mutane sun saba yi wa kansu kwalliya tun kafin samuwar tufafi.

“Idan ku ka dubi mafarautan zamani wadanda ba sa sanya tufafi, su kan yi wa kansu kwalliyar kawa da zane-zane a jiki.

Ba ka bukatar tufafi don yin hakan.”

Akwai hujjar da ke nuni da cewa mutanen Turai na farko (Neanderthals) sun yi wa kansu zayyana mai launi-launi (fenti) da dishi-dishin ja da dorawa, sannan suna amfani da fatun da suka jeme wajen tsafe-tsafe ko adon kogo.

Gaskiyar lamari game da tufafi na da wuyar sha’ani fiye da yadda kuka zata .

Idan sanyi ya yi tsanani don a bayyanar da jikin da aka zane shi da launuka, mutanen farko ya kan zame musu dole su lullube jikinsu.

“Irin wannan adon shi ne aka juya shi ya zama tufafi,” a cewar Gilligan.

Da zarar hakan ta faru, sai bukatar tufafi ta bijiro wa mutane saboda kyautata zamantakewa da dumama jiki.”

Wannan ya bayyana yadda tufafi suka zama wani muhimmin al’amari na nuna mutumtakar mutane.

Haka kuma rashin sanya tufafi na nuni da mutumtakar wasu kabilu na mafarauta da ke yawo tsirara.

Gaskiyar lamari game da tufafi abu ne mai rudarwa fiye da yadda aka zata.

Ta yiwu ba za mu rayu ba tare da tufafi ba, amma a yau muna amfani da tufafi ne fiye da dumama jiki.

Sun zama alamar nuna mutumtaka, ta fannin al’adunmu da zamantakewarmu.

Tufafi sun bambanta mu da suaran nau’ukan halittu da zama haka zikau, a cewar Gilligan.

Saura da me, idan muka yi nuni da rukunin zamantakewar ko kungiyar siyasarmu, al’amari ne da za su iya bambance mu da wasu.

Source: BBC Hausa